Parma were originally founded as Verdi Football Club in 1913 as part of the celebrations for composer Giuseppe Verdi’s centenary in this opera-loving town. The club changed its name to Parma Football Club in December of the same year and wore a white shirt with a black cross.
Becoming AS Parma in 1931, the small club spent several decades between Serie B and C before slipping into the amateur Leagues in 1967. More changes of ownership and name followed until AC Parmense merged with Parma AC in 1970 to become the club we know today.
The blue and yellow colours were adopted and the Gialloblu made their Serie A debut in 1990. The club, with the aid of sponsors Parmalat, haven’t looked back. Qualifying for a UEFA Cup spot in their first season, Parma have since won two UEFA Cups, three Italian Cups, a Cup-Winners Cup, European and Italian Super Cup.
Fighting off financial problems after the collapse of backers Parmalat, the Crociati managed an incredible escape from the drop in 2006-07 with Coach Claudio Ranieri turning their season around, although they were relegated a year later.
Once back in Serie A, Parma consolidated their place, before the arrival of Roberto Donadoni in January 2012. The former Milan midfielder has guided them to three consecutive top 10 finishes, with 2013-14’s sixth place earning Parma a first return to Europe since 2007, but they were barred due to a late tax payment.
That proved to be the tip of a financial iceberg, with the Ducali's players repeatedly going unpaid throughout 2014-15.
Tommaso Ghirardi sold the sinking ship, but a series of new owners failed to deliver on their promises and under Giampietro Manenti the creditors finally lost patience and Parma were declared bankrupt.
The Lega Serie A kept the club going until the end of the season, but the Crociati were forced to start again in Serie D as Parma Calcio 1913.
They achieved successive promotions to return to Serie A, were handed a five point deduction after striker Emanuele Calaio was found guilty of attempting to fix a match against Spezia, but the penalty was revoked on appeal. Calaio is suspended until December 31, 2018.